- Please check and comment entries here.
Invasive Water Hyacinth
Water hyacinth, or Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, from the family Pontederiaceae, is a free-floating aquatic plant that commonly grows in inland freshwater bodies such as lakes, rivers, streams, ponds and wetlands. The plant has broad, wide canopy-like waxy leaves and purple clustered flowers that grow in spikes. The petioles of the plant appear bulbous with air-sacs that help make it buoyant. The plant varies in height from a few centimetres to nearly a metre, while the leaves may be around 15–20 cm in length and width. The plant can sometimes become rooted when it lodges in muddy, shallow waters and the flowers may be blue or white. With the ability to reproduce both sexually through seed propagation and asexually through stolon vegetative reproduction, water hyacinth exhibits the reproductive characteristics suited to invasive success.
Water hyacinth (WH) is notorious for causing severe environmental degradation and being an economic burden to manage. However, it offers substantial prospects if exploited, especially by rural communities. High temperatures, eutrophic conditions and other environmental factors promote the proliferation of the plant in regions where it has been introduced. Regarded as among the world’s worst invasive weeds, WH is nearly impossible to control and eradicate without an integrated approach and community participation. The effectiveness of control methods varies, yet sustained community involvement determines the long-term success of these methods. Reproducing rapidly, WH has the resource capacity to support a unique microeconomic ecosystem, incentivising WH control by generating sustainable income. The WH ecology, the socioeconomic impacts of its invasion and its various applications are reviewed, and revenue generation and cost-saving options are highlighted. A circular microeconomic model is proposed by integrating WH valorisation into the general limitations of a rural community. Empowering locals with opportunities and enticing them with potential economic gains can be a nudge towards a pro-environment behavioural change in managing WH. This would aid in upgrading local livelihoods and could foster resilience within the community in tackling both environmental problems and economic setbacks through the management of WH invasions.
2. Water Hyacinth
3. Water Hyacinth Invasion
3.1. Ecology of Water Hyacinth
3.2. Impacts on Rural Communities
The entry is from 10.3390/plants10081613
- Dersseh, M.G.; Melesse, A.M.; Tilahun, S.A.; Abate, M.; Dagnew, D.C. Water hyacinth: Review of its impacts on hydrology and ecosystem services—Lessons for management of Lake Tana. In Extreme Hydrology and Climate Variability; Melesse, A.M., Abtew, W., Senay, G., Eds.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2019; pp. 237–251.
- Villamagna, A.M.; Murphy, B.R. Ecological and socio-economic impacts of invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): A review. Freshw. Biol. 2010, 55, 282–298.
- Eid, E.M.; Shaltout, K.H. Growth dynamics of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): A modeling approach. Rend. Lincei 2017, 28, 169–181.
- Lolis, L.A.; Alves, D.C.; Fan, S.; Lv, T.; Yang, L.; Li, Y.; Liu, C.; Yu, D.; Thomaz, S.M. Negative correlations between native macrophyte diversity and water hyacinth abundance are stronger in its introduced than in its native range. Divers. Distrib. 2020, 26, 242–253.
- Wu, H.; Ding, J. Abiotic and biotic determinants of plant diversity in aquatic communities invaded by water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms]. Front. Plant Sci. 2020, 11.
- Gezie, A.; Assefa, W.W.; Getnet, B.; Anteneh, W.; Dejen, E.; Mereta, S.T. Potential impacts of water hyacinth invasion and management on water quality and human health in Lake Tana watershed, Northwest Ethiopia. Biol. Invasions 2018, 20, 2517–2534.
- Enyew, B.G.; Assefa, W.W.; Gezie, A. Socioeconomic effects of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Lake Tana, North Western Ethiopia. PLoS ONE 2020, 15, e0237668.
- Honlah, E.; Segbefia, A.Y.; Appiah, D.O.; Mensah, M. The Effects of Water Hyacinth Invasion on Smallholder Farming along River Tano and Tano Lagoon, Ghana. Cogent Food Agric. 2019, 5, 1567042.
- Honlah, E.; Yao Segbefia, A.; Odame Appiah, D.; Mensah, M.; Atakora, P.O. Effects of water hyacinth invasion on the health of the communities, and the education of children along River Tano and Abby-Tano Lagoon in Ghana. Cogent Soc. Sci. 2019, 5, 1619652.
- Cerveira Junior, W.R.; Carvalho, L.B.d. Control of water hyacinth: A short review. Commun. Plant Sci. 2019, 9, 129–132.
- Su, W.; Sun, Q.; Xia, M.; Wen, Z.; Yao, Z. The resource utilization of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) and its challenges. Resources 2018, 7, 46.
- Gaurav, G.K.; Mehmood, T.; Cheng, L.; Klemeš, J.J.; Shrivastava, D.K. Water hyacinth as a biomass: A review. J. Clean. Prod. 2020, 277, 122214.
- Ilo, O.P.; Simatele, M.D.; Nkomo, S.P.L.; Mkhize, N.M.; Prabhu, N.G. The Benefits of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for Southern Africa: A Review. Sustainability 2020, 12, 9222.
- Jafari, N. Ecological and socio-economic utilization of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart Solms). J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manag. 2010, 14, 43–49.
- Li, F.; He, X.; Srishti, A.; Song, S.; Tan, H.T.W.; Sweeney, D.J.; Ghosh, S.; Wang, C.-H. Water hyacinth for energy and environmental applications: A review. Bioresour. Technol. 2021, 327, 124809.
- Sindhu, R.; Binod, P.; Pandey, A.; Madhavan, A.; Alphonsa, J.A.; Vivek, N.; Gnansounou, E.; Castro, E.; Faraco, V. Water hyacinth a potential source for value addition: An overview. Bioresour. Technol. 2017, 230, 152–162.
- Ali, S.; Abbas, Z.; Rizwan, M.; Zaheer, I.E.; Yavaş, İ.; Ünay, A.; Abdel-Daim, M.M.; Bin-Jumah, M.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Kalderis, D. Application of Floating Aquatic Plants in Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals Polluted Water: A Review. Sustainability 2020, 12, 1927.
- Buller, L.S.; Bergier, I.; Ortega, E.; Salis, S.M. Dynamic emergy valuation of water hyacinth biomass in wetlands: An ecological approach. J. Clean. Prod. 2013, 54, 177–187.
- De Groote, H.; Ajuonu, O.; Attignon, S.; Djessou, R.; Neuenschwander, P. Economic impact of biological control of water hyacinth in Southern Benin. Ecol. Econ. 2003, 45, 105–117.
- Segbefia, A.Y.; Honlah, E.; Appiah, D.O. Effects of water hyacinth invasion on sustainability of fishing livelihoods along the River Tano and Abby-Tano Lagoon, Ghana. Cogent Food Agric. 2019, 5, 1654649.
- Jones, R.W. Integrated control of water hyacinth on the Nseleni/Mposa Rivers and Lake Nsezi, Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa. In Biological and Integrated Control of Water Hyacinth: Eichhornia crassipes, Proceedings of the Second Meeting of the Global Working Group for the Biological and Integrated Control of Water Hyacinth, Beijing, China, 9–12 October 2000; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR): Canberra, Australia, 2000; pp. 123–129.
- Yitbarek, M.; Belay, M.; Bazezew, A. Determinants of manual control of water hyacinth expansion over the Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Int. J. Sci. Technol. 2019, 8, 1–14.
- Fanghella, V.; d’Adda, G.; Tavoni, M. On the use of nudges to affect spillovers in environmental behaviors. Front. Psychol. 2019, 10, 1–18.
- Schubert, C. Green nudges: Do they work? Are they ethical? Ecol. Econ. 2017, 132, 329–342.
- Hilton, D.; Treich, N.; Lazzara, G.; Tendil, P. Designing effective nudges that satisfy ethical constraints: The case of environmentally responsible behaviour. Mind Soc. 2018, 17, 27–38.
- Zhang, Y.Y.; Zhang, D.Y.; Barrett, S.C.H. Genetic uniformity characterizes the invasive spread of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a clonal aquatic plant. Mol. Ecol. 2010, 19, 1774–1786.
- Wilson, J.R.; Holst, N.; Rees, M. Determinants and patterns of population growth in water hyacinth. Aquat. Bot. 2005, 81, 51–67.
- Lu, J.; Wu, J.; Fu, Z.; Zhu, L. Water hyacinth in China: A sustainability science-based management framework. Environ. Manag. 2007, 40, 823.
- Zarkami, R.; Esfandi, J.; Sadeghi, R. Modelling Occurrence of Invasive Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Wetlands. Wetlands 2021, 41, 8.
- Bick, E.; de Lange, E.S.; Kron, C.R.; da Silva Soler, L.; Liu, J.; Nguyen, H.D. Effects of salinity and nutrients on water hyacinth and its biological control agent, Neochetina bruchi. Hydrobiologia 2020, 847, 3213–3224.
- Mironga, J.M.; Mathooko, J.M.; Onywere, S.M. Effect of water hyacinth infestation on the physicochemical characteristics of Lake Naivasha. Int. J. Humanit. Soc. Sci. 2012, 2, 103–113.
- Dagno, K.; Lahlali, R.; Diourté, M.; Jijakli, H. Present status of the development of mycoherbicides against water hyacinth: Successes and challenges. A review. Biotechnol. Agron. Société Environ. 2012, 16, 360–368.
- Jones, R.W.; Hill, J.M.; Coetzee, J.A.; Hill, M.P. The contributions of biological control to reduced plant size and biomass of water hyacinth populations. Hydrobiologia 2018, 807, 377–388.
- Honlah, E.; Appiah, D.O.; Segbefia, A.Y. Coping strategies to water hyacinth invasion among riparian communities in Ghana. Am. J. Environ. Sustain. Dev. 2019, 4, 12–25.
- Tobias, V.D.; Conrad, J.L.; Mahardja, B.; Khanna, S. Impacts of water hyacinth treatment on water quality in a tidal estuarine environment. Biol. Invasions 2019, 21, 3479–3490.
- Tewabe, D. Preliminary survey of water hyacinth in Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Glob. J. Allergy 2015, 1, 013–018.
- Rakotoarisoa, T.F.; Waeber, P.O.; Richter, T.; Mantilla-Contreras, J. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), any opportunities for the Alaotra wetlands and livelihoods? Madag. Conserv. Dev. 2015, 10, 128–136.
- Akhyadi, A.S.; Sadikin, I.S. The construct of community empowerment through social compass strategy: Case study of empowerment in processing waste and water hyacinth. Int. J. Educ. Stud. 2020, 13, 27–48.
- Ramadani, R.F.; Heryanto, N.; Komar, O.; Hasanah, V.R. Community empowerment through social compass strategy: Case study of empowerment in processing waste and water hyacinth. J. Nonform. Educ. 2020, 6, 9.
- Ramadani, R.F.; Akhyadi, A.S.; Heryanto, N. Community Empowerment Strategy in Bangkit Bersama Cooperation (Case Study of the Waste Management and Water Hyacinth Craftsmen Empowerment Program). Int. Conf. Elem. Educ. 2020, 2, 1567–1573.