- Please check and comment entries here.
Botulinumtoxin A for Post-herpetic neuralgia
Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a very painful neuropathic condition, which occurs after nerve injury (e.g., demyelination, loss of axons, small-fiber-degeneration, reorganization in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, and neuroplastic central changes) due to herpes-zoster-virus infection and is defined as a local neuropathic pain lasting for more than three months following the initial acute zoster infection. Adjunctive local BoNT A injection is a promising option for severe PHN, as a safe and effective therapy in long-term management for chronic neuropathic pain.
Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a very painful neuropathic condition. Frequently, the patient’s complaints are burning pain with rushing pain points and dynamic tactile allodynia. Severe PHN reduces QOL (Quality of Life) and often induces sleep disturbance . Despite even escalated pharmacological treatment regimens including anticonvulsants, antidepressants, opioids, and local therapy with lidocaine or capsaicin, patients frequently suffer from severe side effects (especially in patients older than 50 years of age) lacking relevant pain relief. A widely accepted therapy goal with oral medication and/or local therapy strategies for PHN is to reduce the pain by about 30–50% .
After the first publication on the effect of BoNT A injection against pain due to dystonia by Brin et al. (1987), many studies showed positive effects on chronic pain, including spasticity-associated pain and neurogenic pain . The evidence for the efficacy of BoNT A in neuropathic pain relief in humans was firstly presented by Klein in 2004 .
2. Mechanisms and Action Sites of botulinumtoxin A (BoNT A)
Several mechanisms of pain reduction by BoNT A injections have been discussed in the literature, assuming an inhibitory effect on the release of various inflammation-mediated substances (e.g., substance P, glutamate, calcitonin gene-related peptide). This inhibitory effect is mediated by blocking exocytosis by BoNT A, acting via SNAP-25 cleaving . The mechanisms mediating the toxin effects on sensory fibers and nociceptors and on the autonomic system are assumed to be mediated in the same way . It was shown that BoNT A leads to a deactivation of sodium channel conductance in cell cultures of central and peripheral neurons . In addition, BoNT A inhibits afferents to muscle spindles, reduces sympathetic signal transmission, and, at least, leads to µreceptor-mediated pain relief at the spinal level . In 2008, Antonucci et al. suggested that central effects of peripherally applied BoNT A might be due to retrograde transport of the toxin or, alternatively, due to transcytosis leading to an inhibition of neurotransmitters release onto dorsal horn neurons . Moreover, two recent animal studies showed, that BoNT A diminishes the CCI (chronic constriction injury)-induced level of IL-1β (interleukin-1β) and IL-18 within the spinal cord and/or the dorsal root ganglia and, in parallel, enhances the levels of the anti-nociceptive factors IL-1RA (IL-1-receptor antagonist) and IL-10. However, it is still unclear whether those BoNT A actions are mediated locally or indirectly from distant sites. Another recent in-vitro study by Piotrowska (2017) showed new light on the analgesic effect of BoNT A as they suggested a toll-like receptor (TLR2) mediated inhibition of both intracellular signaling pathways and release of pro-inflammatory substance cultured rat neocortical microglial cells . Inhibitory effects of BoNT A were also found on G-proteins and prostaglandin synthase COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2), the latter known to activate the proinflammatory cytokine Interleukin-1 (IL-1) . On that basis, Rojewska et al. (2018) suggested that BoNT A not only exerts its analgesic action directly neuronal but also indirectly via modulating microglial-astrocytic-neuronal crosstalk on the spinal level. In summary, non-neuronal cells are one of the targets of the pain-modulating BoNT A action and have to be taken into account in the context of neuropathic pain treatment . However, the detailed and widely accepted mechanism of BoNT A’s effects against neuropathic pain remains elusive and is still under debate. The positive effect of BoNT A on PHN at the clinical aspect is nevertheless clearly proven lacking data for long-term efficacy and safety. The local BoNT A treatment of PHN is still an “off-label” option without reimbursement of the drug, at least in Germany and other European countries.
3. BoNT A Management of Chronic Pain in Post-Herpetic Neuralgia
3.1. Applied Botulinumtoxin A
3.2. Doses and Injection Technique
Botulinumtoxin A seems to be a good option for long-term management in severe PHN, inducing significant pain reduction (up to 30–50% VAS reduction) for up to 3–4 months per injection cycle. It is difficult to reach such distinct effects by classical oral medication and/or local anesthetic therapies.
Adding intra-/subcutaneous BoNT A injections to standard oral medication is more helpful for pain reduction in severe PHN, especially in cases with non-response or non-tolerance of oral medication. There are no differences in both efficacy and safety of the different available BoNT A products and injection techniques (intra- or subcutaneous), respectively. It seems that a longer duration of pain reduction will be achieved by more injection points per session. In the case of ona- and incobotulinumtoxin A, the doses of 5–10 IU per injection point are recommended. The injection interval can be decided individually however, as in the proven range of BoNT A efficacy between 10 and 14 weeks.
The entry is from 10.3390/jpm11080758
- Goßrau, G. Postherpetic neuralgia. Nervenarzt 2015, 86, 219–228.
- Rojewska, E.; Piotrowska, A.; Popiolek-Barczyk, K.; Mika, J. Botulinum Toxin Type A—A Modulator of Spinal Neuron—Glia Interactions under Neuropathic Pain Conditions. Toxins 2018, 10, 145.
- Hatch, M.N.; Cushing, T.R.; Carlson, G.D.; Chang, E.Y. Neuropathic pain and SCI: Identification and treatment strategies in the 21st century. J. Neurol. Sci. 2017, 384, 75–83.
- Baron, R. Pharmakologisch Nicht Interventionelle Therapie Chronisch Neuropathischer Schmerzen [Pharmacological, Non-Interventional Therapies of Chronic Neuropathic Pain]. Kapitel Kopfschmerzen und Andere Schmerzen. Leitlinien für Diagnostik und Therapie in der Neurologie 2012. Available online: https://dgn.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/030-114l_S1_Neuropathischer_Schmerzen_Therapie_2014-verlaengert.pdf (accessed on 8 May 2018).
- Cohen, J.I. Clinical practice: Herpes zoster. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013, 369, 255–263.
- Sacks, G.M. Unmet need in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Am. J. Manag. Care 2013, 19, S207–S213.
- Brin, M.F.; Fahn, S.; Moskowitz, C.; Friedman, A.; Shale, H.M.; Greene, P.E.; Blitzer, A.; List, T.; Lange, D.; Lovelace, R.E.; et al. Localized injections of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal dystonia and hemifacial spasm. Mov. Disord. 1987, 2, 237–254.
- Durham, P.L.; Cady, R.; Cady, R. Regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide secretion from trigeminal nerve cells by botulinum toxin type A: Implications for migraine therapy. Headache 2004, 44, 35–42.
- Lucioni, A.; Bales, G.T.; Lotan, T.L.; McGehee, D.S.; Cook, S.P.; Rapp, D.E. Botulinum toxin type A inhibits sensory neuropeptide release in rat bladder models of acute injury and chronic inflammation. BJU Int. 2008, 101, 366–370.
- McMahon, H.T.; Foran, P.; Dolly, J.O.; Verhage, M.; Wiegant, V.M.; Nicholls, D.G. Tetanus toxin and botulinum toxins type A and B inhibit glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, aspartate, and met-enkephalin release from synaptosomes clues to the locus of action. J. Biol. Chem. 1992, 267, 21338–21343.
- Wissel, J.; Ganapathy, V.; Ward, A.B.; Borg, J.; Ertzgaard, P.; Herrmann, C.; Haggstrom, A.; Sakel, M.; Ma, J.; Dimitrova, R.; et al. Onabotulinumtoxin A Improves Pain in Patients with Post-Stroke Spasticity: Findings From a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J. Pain Symptom Manag. 2016, 52, 17–26.
- Klein, A.W. The therapeutic potential of botulinum toxin. Derm. Surg. 2004, 30, 452–455.
- Burstein, R.; Zhang, X.C.; Levy, D.; Aoki, K.R.; Brin, M.F. Selective inhibition of meningeal nociceptors by botulinum neurotoxin type A: Therapeutic implications for migraine and other pains. Cephalalgia 2014, 34, 853–869.
- Shin, M.C.; Wakita, M.; Xie, D.J.; Yamaga, T.; Iwata, S.; Torii, Y.; Harakawa, T.; Ginnaga, A.; Kozaki, S.; Akaike, N. Inhibition of membrane Na+ channels by A type botulinum toxin at femtomolar concentrations in central and peripheral neurons. J. Pharmacol. Sci. 2012, 118, 33–42.
- Drinovac, V.; Bach-Rojecky, L.; Matak, I.; Lacković, Z. Involvement of mu-opioid receptors in antinociceptive action of botulinum toxin type A. Neuropharmacology 2013, 70, 331–337.
- Filippi, G.M.; Errico, P.; Santarelli, R.; Bagolini, B.; Manni, E. Botulinum A toxin effects on rat jaw muscle spindles. Acta Otolaryngol. 1993, 113, 400–404.
- Rand, M.J.; Whaler, B.C. Impairment of sympathetic transmission by botulinum toxin. Nature 1965, 206, 588–591.
- Antonucci, F.; Rossi, C.; Gianfranceschi, L.; Rossetto, O.; Caleo, M. Long-Distance Retrograde Effects of Botulinum Neurotoxin A. J. Neurosci. 2008, 28, 3689–3696.
- Piotrowska, A.; Popiolek-Barczyk, K.; Pavone, F.; Mika, J. Comparison of the Expression Changes after Botulinum Toxin Type A and Minocycline Administration in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Rat Microglial and Astroglial Cultures. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 2017, 7, 141.
- Namazi, H. Intravesical botulinum toxin A injections plus hydrodistension can reduce nerve growth factor production and control bladder pain in interstitial cystitis: A molecular mechanism. Urology 2008, 72, 463–464.
- Chuang, Y.C.; Yoshimura, N.; Huang, C.C.; Wu, M.; Chiang, P.H.; Chancellor, M.B. Intraprostatic botulinum toxin a injection inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 expression and suppresses prostatic pain on capsaicin induced prostatitis model in rat. J. Urol. 2008, 180, 742–748.
- Jain, P.; Jain, M.; Jain, S. Subcutaneous Injection of Botulinum Toxin-A in Postherpetic Neuralgia During Pregnancy. Ann. Indian Acad. Neurol. 2017, 20, 430.
- Attal, N. Pharmacological treatments of neuropathic pain: The latest recommendations. Rev. Neurol. 2019, 175, 46–50.
- Safarpour, Y.; Jabbari, B. Botulinum toxin treatment of pain syndromes—An evidence based review. Toxicon 2018, 147, 120–128.
- Apalla, Z.; Sotiriou, E.; Lallas, A.; Lazaridou, E.; Ioannides, D. Botulinum Toxin A in Postherpetic Neuralgia, A Parallel, Randomized, Double-Blind, Single-Dose. Placebocontrolled Trial. Clin. J. Pain 2013, 29, 857–864.
- Liu, H.T.; Tsai, S.K.; Kao, M.C.; Hu, J.S. Botulinum toxin A relieved neuropathic pain in a case of post-herpetic neuralgia. Pain Med. 2006, 7, 89–91.
- Ruiz Huete, C.; Bermejo, P. Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of neuropathic pain in a case of postherpetic neuralgia. Neurologia 2008, 23, 259–262.
- Ranoux, D.; Attal, N.; Morain, F.; Bouhassira, D. Botulinum toxin type A induces direct analgesic effects in chronic neuropathic pain. Ann. Neurol. 2008, 64, 274–283.
- Sotiriou, E.; Apalla, Z.; Panagiotidou, D.; Ioannidis, D. Severe post-herpetic neuralgia successfully treated with botulinum toxin A: Three case reports. Acta Derm Venereol. 2009, 89, 214–215.
- Xiao, L.; Mackey, S.; Hui, H.; Xong, D.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, D. Subcutaneous injection of botulinum toxin a is beneficial in postherpetic neuralgia. Pain Med. 2010, 11, 1827–1833.
- Ponce, O.R.M.; Guerrero, S.E.L.; Tirado, S.A. Botulinumtoxintype A (onabotulinum toxin A) in the management of post herpetic neuralgia. Dermatol. Rev. Mex. 2013, 57, 18–21.
- Li, D.; Xiao, L. Combining Botulinum Toxin (A) Injection With Peripheral Nerve Stimulation in a Patient for Intractable Ophthalmic Postherpetic Neuralgia. Neuromodulation 2015, 18, 769–771.
- Attal, N.; de Andrade, D.C.; Adam, F. Safety and efficacy of repeated injections of botulinum toxin A in peripheral neuropathic pain (BOTNEP): A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2016, 15, 555–565.
- Emad, M.R.; Emad, M.; Taheri, P. The Efficacy of Intradermal Injection of Botulinum Toxin in Patients with Post-Herpetic Neuralgia. Iran Red Crescent Med. J. 2011, 13, 323–327.
- Jain, P.; Jain, M.; Jain, S. Subcutaneous Injection of Botulinum Toxin in Patients with Post Herpetic Neuralgia. A Preliminary Study. J. Assoc. Physicians India 2018, 66, 48–49.
- Ding, X.D.; Zhong, J.; Liu, Y.P.; Chen, H.X. Botulinum as a Toxin for Treating Post-herpetic Neuralgia. Iran. J. Public Health 2017, 46, 608–611.
- Hu, Y.; Zou, L.; Qi, X.; Lu, Y.; Zhou, X.; Mao, Z.; Chen, X.; Liu, K.; Yang, Y.; Wu, Z.; et al. Subcutaneous botulinum toxin-A injection for treating postherpetic neuralgia. Derm. Ther. 2020, 33, e13181.
- Eitner, L.; Vollert, J.; Maier, C.; Attal, N. Botulinumtoxin-A-Injektionen bei neuropathischem Schmerz: Eine Post-hoc-Subgruppenanalyse bei Patienten mit peripherer Nervenverletzung [Botulinum toxin A injections in neuropathic pain: A post-hoc subgroup analysis of patients with peripheral nerve injury]. Schmerz 2017, 31, 524–526.
- Frevert, J. Pharmaceutical, biological, and clinical properties of botulinum neurotoxin type A products. Drugs R D 2015, 15, 1–9.
- Mårtensson, L.; Nyberg, K.; Wallin, G. Subcutaneous versus intracutaneous injections of sterile water for labour analgesia: A comparison of perceived pain during administration. BJOG 2000, 107, 1248–1251.