- Please check and comment entries here.
Clean Label and Gluten-Free Breadmaking
“Clean label” is an evolving concept that has shifted in its meaning and significance over the years. This term is not regulated by food laws. However, it may be considered by manufacturers and consumers to be indicative of products that are, for example, organic, UTZ, Fair Trade, Halal, Kosher, vegetarian, vegan, and/or free from. The clean label is most strongly associated with “natural” ingredients that are easily recognizable and considered safe by consumers. Cleaner formulations are associated with shorter ingredient lists, as fewer ingredients appear to signify more natural and higher quality products. However, additives are often important for extending shelf life and improving the consistency and sensory qualities of food. Moreover, ingredients may be made from entirely natural source materials, but still not be considered suitable for use in clean label products.
The commonly used term of “clean label” refers to food products that do not contain additives (E numbers). Although there is not always a scientific reason for believing that additive-free products are healthier, clean label products are becoming more popular. The growing market for gluten-free foods represents an important target group of consumers, who could be interested in products meeting clean label standards. However, manufacturing gluten-free baked goods according to the clean label concept is extremely difficult, as gluten-free raw materials demonstrate poor baking properties. Additives are required to simulate the texturing properties of gluten, few of are suitable for clean label products. This paper discusses the possibility of replacing the hydrocolloids most commonly used in gluten-free baked goods with β-glucan, psyllium, or transglutaminase.
In recent years, consumers have taken a more active interest in the source, quality and nutritional value of food. This is reflected not only in the rising sales of organic products from certified crops, but also in calls from both consumers and consumer organizations to reduce or even avoid the use of additives in processed food. As a result, “free-from” statements have started appearing on products, which have been reformulated to make them closer to home-made or traditional recipes, with fewer ingredients.
2. Clean Label
“Clean label” is an evolving concept that has shifted in its meaning and significance over the years. This term is not regulated by food laws. However, it may be considered by manufacturers and consumers to be indicative of products that are, for example, organic, UTZ, Fair Trade, Halal, Kosher, vegetarian, vegan, and/or free from. The clean label is most strongly associated with “natural” ingredients that are easily recognizable and considered safe by consumers. Cleaner formulations are associated with shorter ingredient lists, as fewer ingredients appear to signify more natural and higher quality products. However, additives are often important for extending shelf life and improving the consistency and sensory qualities of food. Moreover, ingredients may be made from entirely natural source materials, but still not be considered suitable for use in clean label products. The term “natural” has no clear legal definition, and there are many non-synthetic additives on the food additives list that have been assigned E numbers. In the EU, a product labeled “no” (colors, preservatives, etc.) must not contain any of the substances covered by EU regulation no 1333/2008 .
3. Consumer Attitudes
|North America||Europe||Asia||Latin America||MEA (Middle East Africa)||Australasia|
|No stabilizers (+48%)||No stabilizer (+116%)||No stabilizer (+56%)||No sweeteners (+22%)||No artificial color (+25%)||Nothing artificial (+42%)|
|No artificial sweetener (+30%)||No sweeteners (+24%)||No additives (+44%)||No flavors (+15%)||Real ingredients (+24%)||Only natural (+13%)|
|No sweeteners (+16%)||No colors (+18%)||No flavors (+33%)||No artificial additives (+13%)||No artificial flavor (+23%)||No artificial sweeteners (+9%)|
|GMO free (+15%)||Natural ingredients (+17%)||Natural sweeteners (+31%)||No artificial preservatives (+11%)||Natural colors (+18%)||Natural sweeteners (+9%)|
|No artificial preservatives (+12%)||No flavors (+17%)||No artificial preservatives (+30%)||No colors (+10%)||No artificial preservatives (+11%)|
|Natural flavors (+10%)||Organic (+13%)||No artificial sweeteners (+26%)||No artificial flavors (+5%)|
3.1. Clean Label for Gluten-Free Baked Goods
3.2. Health Premises for Gluten-Free Diet
3.3. Scale of the Problem
The entry is from 10.3390/app11136129
- Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on Food Additives. Available online: (accessed on 5 March 2021).
- Report: Clean Label: Evolving and Expanding. Available online: (accessed on 5 March 2021).
- Grunert, K.G. How changes in consumer behaviour and retailing affect competence requirements for food producers and processors. Econ. Agrar. Recur. Nat. 2006, 6, 3–22.
- Say No to ‘Natural’ on Food Labels. Available online: (accessed on 5 March 2021).
- Lebwohl, B.; Ludvigsson, J.F.; Green, P.H.R. Celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. BMJ 2015, 351.
- Ortiz, C.; Valenzuela, R.; Lucero, A.Y. Celiac disease, non celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy: Comparison of 3 different diseases triggered by the same food. Rev. Child Pediatr. 2017, 88, 417–423.
- Lebwohl, B.; Rubio-Tapia, A.; Guandalini, S.; Newland, C.; Assiri, A. Diagnosis of celiac disease. Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 2012, 22, 661–677.
- New Guidelines for the Diagnosis of Paediatric Coeliac Disease; European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). Available online: (accessed on 5 March 2021).
- Usai-Satta, P.; Oppia, F.; Lai, M.; Cabras, F. Motility disorders in celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity: The Impact of a gluten-free diet. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1705.
- Catassi, C.; Bai, J.C.; Bonaz, B.; Bouma, G.; Calabrò, A.; Carroccio, A.; Castillejo, G.; Ciacci, C.; Cristofori, F.; Dolinsek, J.; et al. Non Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3839–3853.
- Catassi, C.; Elli, L.; Bonaz, B.; Bouma, G.; Carroccio, A.; Castillejo, G.; Cellier, C.; Cristofori, F.; De Magistris, L.; Dolinsek, J.; et al. Diagnosis of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS): The Salerno Experts’ Criteria. Nutrients 2015, 7, 4966–4977.
- Aziz, I.; Lewis, N.R.; Hadjivassiliou, M.; Winfield, S.N.; Rugg, N.; Kelsall, A.; Newrick, L.; Sanders, D.S. A UK study assessing the population prevalence of self-reported gluten sensitivity and referral characteristics to secondary care. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2014, 26, 33–39.
- Elli, L.; Branchi, F.; Tomba, C.; Villalta, D.; Norsa, L.; Ferretti, F.; Roncoroni, L.; Bardella, M.T. Diagnosis of gluten related disorders: Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. World J. Gastroenterol. 2015, 21, 7110–7119.
- Grace-Farfaglia, P. Celiac & Gluten Intolerance: A Wellness Perspective. J. Nutr. Health Food Eng. 2014, 1, 00028.
- Melini, V.; Melini, F. Gluten-Free Diet: Gaps and Needs for a Healthier Diet. Nutrients 2019, 11, 170.
- Aggarwal, S.; Lebwohl, B.; Green, P.H.R. Screening for celiac disease in average-risk and high-riskpopulations. Ther. Adv. Gastroenterol. 2012, 5, 37–47.
- Catassi, C.; Gatti, S.; Fasano, A. The New Epidemiology of Celiac Disease. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 2014, 59, S7–S9.
- White, L.E.; Merrick, V.M.; Bannerman, E.; Russell, R.K.; Basude, D.; Henderson, P.; Wilson, D.C.; Gillett, P.M. The Rising Incidence of Celiac Disease in Scotland. Pediatrics 2013, 132, e924–e931.
- Singh, P.; Arora, A.; Strand, T.A.; Leffler, D.A.; Catassi, C.; Green, P.H.; Kelly, C.P.; Ahuja, V.; Makharia, G.K. Global Prevalence of Celiac Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2018, 16, 823–836.
- Altobelli, E.; Paduano, R.; Petrocelli, R.; di Orio, F. Burden of Celiac Disease in Europe: A review of itschildhood and adulthood prevalence and incidence as of September 2014. Ann. Ig. 2014, 26, 485–498.
- Kupfer, S.S.; Jabri, B. Celiac Disease Pathophysiology. Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 2012, 22, 639–660.
- Nwaru, B.I.; Hickstein, L.; Panesar, S.S.; Roberts, G.; Muraro, A.; Sheikh, A.; on behalf of the EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines Group. Prevalence of common food allergies in Europe: A systematic reviewand meta-analysis. Allergy 2014, 69, 992–1007.
- Czaja-Bulsa, G.; Bulsa, M. What Do We Know Now about IgE-Mediated Wheat Allergy in Children. Nutrients 2017, 9, 35.
- Coeliac Australia Home Webpage. Available online: (accessed on 23 June 2021).