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Jakarta’s Destination Brand Image
Destination image and city branding are accumulating a growing body of knowledge in urban studies and tourism literature. Although several visitor destination image models have been proposed, the most prevalent in Asia remains the comprehensive destination image model. This is the first research to test the applicability of this model beyond the United States and with international (rather than domestic) visitors. Jakarta is chosen as the geographical test area for this study, which incorporates structural equation modeling on a data sample of international leisure visitors in Jakarta. The findings indicate that the destination image model could be generalized beyond the US and applied to Jakarta. This study finds that tourism policymakers in Jakarta should focus on promoting the friendliness of local residents and improving the city’s cleanliness, as these are the two most positive and negative perceptions. Overall, this study showed that a unique destination image—a largely under-researched topic in place branding—is a variable that should be considered when formulating the overall place image of city destinations around the world.
2. Results and Discussion
2.1. Descriptive Statistics
2.1.1. Demographics, Origins, and Lengths of Stay
2.1.2. Cognitive Images
|Cognitive Image Items||Median Scores (n = 311)|
|Easy access to the area (Q1)||4|
|Restful and relaxing atmosphere (Q2)||3|
|Reasonable cost of hotels/restaurants (Q3)||4|
|Reasonable cost of shopping centers (Q4)||3|
|Beautiful scenery/natural wonders (Q5)||3|
|Lots of open space (Q6)||3|
|Friendly local people (Q7)||5|
|Delicious local cuisine (Q8)||4|
|Great state/theme parks (Q9)||3|
|Good place for children/family (Q10)||3|
|Availability of tourist welcome centers (Q11)||3|
|Good weather (Q12)||4|
|Interesting cultural events/festivals (Q13)||3|
|Good shopping facilities (Q14)||4|
|Clean/unspoiled environment (Q15)||2|
|Good infrastructure (Q16)||3|
|Availability of travel information (Q17)||3|
|A wide choice of accommodations (Q18)||4|
|Safe and secure environment (Q19)||4|
|A wide variety of entertainment (Q20)||3|
|Great nightlife (Q21)||3|
|Numerous water sports (Q22)||3|
|A wide variety of outdoor activities (Q23)||3|
|Lots of adventurous activities (Q24)||3|
|Availability of facilities for golfing/tennis (Q25)||3|
|Native Indonesian culture (Q26)||4|
|Rich historic and cultural sites (Q27)||4|
2.1.3. Unique Images
2.1.4. Affective Images
2.1.5. Overall Image of Jakarta
2.1.6. Future Intentions
2.2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis
2.2.1. Validity and Reliability Tests
|Beautiful scenery/natural wonders (Q5)||0.64|
|Great state/theme parks (Q9)||0.55|
|Good place for children/family (Q10)||0.55|
|Availability of tourist welcome centers (Q11)||0.54|
|Interesting cultural events/festivals (Q13)||0.54|
|A wide variety of entertainment (Q20)||0.53|
|Numerous water sports (Q22)||0.52|
|A wide variety of outdoor activities (Q23)||0.65|
|Lots of adventurous activities (Q24)||0.64|
|Native Indonesian culture (Q26)||0.52|
|Rich historic and cultural sites (Q27)||0.69|
|Native Indonesian cultures (Q28)||0.53|
|Wonderful scenery and natural wonders (Q30)||0.61|
|Relaxing spas (Q31)||0.51|
|Lots of tourist attractions (Q35)||0.80|
|Rich cultural/historical/heritage sites (Q36)||0.75|
|Goodness of Fit Tests||Statistics|
|Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA)||0.076|
|Normed Fit Index (NFI)||0.93|
|Non-Normed Fit Index (NNFI)||0.95|
|Comparative Fit Index (CFI)||0.95|
|Incremental Fit Index (IFI)||0.95|
|Relative Fit Index (RFI)||0.92|
2.2.2. Goodness of Fit Tests
2.3. Structural Equation Modeling
2.4. Hypotheses Tests
The entry is from 10.3390/su13137434
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