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Proline and Heat-tolerance
Dietary proline supplementation is useful for enhancing heat-tolerance and semen quality of rabbit bucks affected by heat-stress. These effects are dose-dependent and were achieved at doses ranging between 50 and 100 mg proline/kg DM. Higher proline concentrations likely have undesirable effects on redox status and sperm quality.
Proline is an amino acid with a unique chemical structure and multiple biological functions; it acts as a proteinogenic amino acid, an osmolyte, and an antioxidant . In addition, proline regulates several pathways that are active under various stress conditions . Among these pathways, proline dehydrogenase/proline oxidase (PRODH/POX) signaling is upregulated under oxidative stress and other stress conditions . Proline also regulates the mammalian target of rapamycin activation pathway , which integrates signals regarding nutrients (glucose and amino acids), cellular energy status, and growth factors, thereby controlling cell proliferation and function . Kang and coworkers  found that dietary supplementation with 1% proline increased the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in weaned piglets that were challenged with lipopolysaccharide. In adults, Ma et al.  observed a relationship between decreased blood plasma proline concentrations and increased prevalence of semen abnormalities and male infertility. Accordingly, proline can be considered a functional amino acid for mammalian species . In most mammals, proline is classified as a nonessential amino acid, although under conditions such as heat stress and cold stress, several amino acids that are synthesized by animals can be considered as conditionally essential because their rates of catabolism are not compensated by rates of anabolism .
2. Effects of Proline in Rabbits
The entry is from 10.3390/ani11020373
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