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Workplace Based Sampler Comparison Review
A narrative review on peer-reviewed literature reporting comparisons of personal samplers in workplace settings published between 2004 and 2020 was carried out. Search terms were developed for Web of Science and PubMed bibliographic databases. The retrieved studies were screened for relevance, with those studies meeting the inclusion criteria being taken forward to data extraction (22 studies). The inhalable fraction was the most common fraction assessed, with the IOM sampler being the most studied sampler. The most common workplace environment where samplers had been compared was that where metals/metalloids were present. The requirements of EN13205 standard (Workplace exposure. Assessment of sampler performance for measurement of airborne particle concentrations) have also been considered, with these requirements not currently being met, or at least referred to, in the reviewed literature. A number of conclusions have been drawn from this narrative review. For studies that reported correction factors, no discernible trends could be identified.
|Number of experiments||The standard requires that four sets of experiments (consisting of five runs and parallel sampling) are performed. The parallel runs set out in the standard to be performed are between the candidate and validated samplers, for a least six candidate specimens for the personal sampler, the determination of the effect of flow rate excursions on the mass fraction samples, and the determination of internally separated mass or the collected mass effect. It is also required, under the standard that a validated sampler is needed to be used for two of the experiments.|
|Candidate sampler bias||For complying with the standard, the exclusion of outliers is allowed. However, a minimum of five different experimental runs for validated sampler/candidate sampler are required to be used.|
|Candidate sampler variability (not applicable for inhalable fraction and large static samplers)||The standard discusses that this test is not necessary if the candidate sampler is for personal inhalable sampling or if the candidate sampler is a large static sampler.|
|Exclusion from the nominal flow rate (not applicable for inhalable fractions)||The standard sets out the requirements for sampling the respirable and thoracic fraction. This involves calculating the corresponding uncertainty component. This requirement of the standard is not applicable for sampling the personal inhalable fraction.|
|Collected mass or internally separated mass||The standard discusses that the tests required for collecting the mass and internally separated mass can be performed simultaneously. If the inhalable fraction is being sampled, it is stated that the second test is not required.
The components to be calculated are the maximum collected mass and the maximum internally separated mass.
|Sampler bias and expanded uncertainty||The criterion for applying a correction factor is stated in the standard for a candidate sampler to be validated. The correction factor from the manufacturer can be used or a correction factor obtained from a relevant measuring procedure. In cases of no correction factor being stated, the standard stated a value of 1.00 should be used.|
2. Samplers Assessed
3. Comparison of Samplers Reported in the Literature and Those Used by Industry
Inhalable samplers: Open face cassette (OFC) 25 mm, Zefon inhalable sampler, HSE 7H sampler, and the 37 mm conical inhalable sampler (CIS);
Respirable samplers: FSP2, SKC conductive plastic cyclone, Zefon cyclones. GS-1 and GS-3 respirable cyclones, SKC disposable, and aluminium respirable PPI samplers, and the 10 mm Dorr-Oliver Nylon Cyclone;
Multifraction samplers: EA sampling system;
PM fractions: SKC personal environment monitors for PM2.5 and PM10, SKC PM2.5, and PM10 IMPACT samplers, SKC PM coarse IMPACT sampler and SKC personal modular impactor (PMI) samplers for PM2.5 and PM10.
4. EN Standard 13025:5 for Workplace Sampler Comparison Studies
|Reference||Reference to EN 13205 Standard||Number of Experiments (as Stated in the Standard)||Candidate Sampler Bias||Candidate Sampler Variability||Exclusion from the Nominal Flow Rate||Collected Mass or Internally Separated Mass||Sampler Bias and Expanded Uncertainty|
x (total, thoracic, respirable)
x (respirable, thoracic)
x (respirable, thoracic)
5. Workplace Settings
6. Limitations Identified by Article Authors
7. Potential Improvements
The entry is from 10.3390/ijerph18136819
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