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Sand Dam Technology
Sand dam technology filters and protects water from contamination and evaporation with low to no maintenance cost. Sand dams improve the socio-economy of the community and help to cope with drought and climate change. However, success depends on the site selection, design, and construction. The ideal site for a sand dam is at a transition between mountains and plains, with no bend, intermediate slope, and impermeable riverbed in a catchment with a slope greater than 2°. The spillway dimensioning considers the flow velocity, sediment properties, and storage target, and the construction is in multi-stages. Recently, the failure of several sand dams because of incorrect siting, evaporation loss, and one-stage construction were reported. Revision of practitioners’ manuals by considering catchment scale hydrological and hydrogeological characteristics, spillway height, and sediment transport are recommended. Research shows that protected wells have better water quality than open wells and scoop holes. Therefore, the community should avoid open defecation, pit latrines, tethering of animals, and applying pesticides near the sand dam.
|Study Focus, Site||Source, Reference|
|Assessment of water quality|||
|Effect of a sand dam on groundwater|||
|Climate change and drought|||
|Particle size distribution and evaporation|||
|Occurrence of a sand dam|||
|Working principles and water balance|||
|Sustainable development analysis|||
|Site selection, feasibility studies, manual|||
|African Sand Dam Foundation|||
Sand Dam Hydrology and Working Principles
2. Challenges of Sand Dam Application
2.1. Water Quality
|Escherichia coli||SC||46%||-||<10,500 mg/L|
|Total dissolved solids (TDS)||SC||64–872 mg/L||-||<3500 mg/L|
|W||692–1132 mg/L||-||<2500 mg/L|
2.2. Evaporation and Seepage Losses
2.3. Downstream Effect
2.4. Storage Capacity and Cost-Efficiency
The entry is from 10.3390/su13115905
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