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Fractionation of Dietary Fiber
Dietary fiber (DF) has wide applications, especially in the food and pharmaceutical industries due to its health-promoting effects and potential techno-functional properties in developing functional food products. There is a growing interest in studies related to DF; nevertheless, there is less focus on the fractionation and characterization of DF. The characteristics of DF fractions explain their functionality in food products and provide clues to their physiological effects in food and pharmaceutical industrial applications. The review focuses on a brief introduction to DF, fractionation and characterization methods of DF, and the potential sources of DF from selected defatted oilseeds for future studies.
2. Fractionation of DF
Fractionation of DF can be conducted using dry or wet processes to isolate starch and protein, and a fiber fraction is obtained as an end product . There are several fractionation processes, differing by the method applied, separation techniques, and pretreatment practices. The parameters, such as the cost, time, yield, technological characteristics, and the functionality lost during the fractionation, change considerably according to the fractionation process applied . Fractionation of DF isolates the interested fractions, quantify those constituents, and eliminate unfavorable components. There are limited methods for the fractionation of DF into their constituents. It is recognized that the physicochemical and physiological effects of DF depend on its individual components, especially in relation to insoluble and soluble fractions .
Southgate  was the first to fractionate the unavailable carbohydrates in foods, which include the extraction and fractionation procedure for crude lignin, cellulose, and lignocellulose fractions . Also, wheat bran was fractionated using a hot and cold water extraction to isolate the water-soluble polymers and enzymatic and acid treatments to fractionate the insoluble fibers . Furthermore, combined fractionation methodologies using heat resulted in the modified insoluble fiber fraction levels . Graham et al.  found that high-temperature extraction contributed to the highest yield of soluble fibers, and acidic extraction yielded the lowest. Czuchajowska and Pomeranz  patented the wet fractionation method to isolate starch, protein, and DF, requiring no chemicals and much less water than other standard methods. DF is a significant component of both water-soluble and tailings starch fractions and large amounts of protein and starch .
Alternatively, Wang et al.  employed a dry fractionation that is water- and energy efficient and does not need any solvents to produce enriched DF from defatted rice bran. Also, the dry fractionation technique creates fractions with different particle sizes and densities that affect their fiber content . Yáñez et al.  applied dry fractionation on distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using a vibratory sifter and gravity separator and found that this technique was more effective than wet fractionation due to its cost effective, environmental-friendly method and high yield. Therefore, dry fractionation could be conducted as a tail-end method at ethanol plants to separate DDGS into fragments .
The various fractionation methods are developed based on the material evaluated; thus, a global fractionation procedure is unavailable . The aforementioned techniques only describe universal fractionation methods. Hence, each researcher should modify previous procedures to develop an optimum method for a specific sample . Several methods enable a more refined separation of constituents, allowing the evaluation of molecular structure, e.g., pectin . Following the extraction, isolation, and purification using chromatographic techniques, the molecular weight of polysaccharides can be evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the structure is confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) . Recently, Alba et al.  developed a sequential fractionation procedure of blackcurrant pomace into five insoluble and soluble DF fractions. In commercial applications, dry fractionation uses pin milling and air classification, which is repeated to obtain a high recovery level of the protein fraction . The efficiency of milling and air classification varies considerably due to differences in structural thickness and hardness of cell walls and seeds and binding strength between starch granules and protein .
The variation in starch, protein, and minor component levels in the fractions will influence functionality , thus, affecting the overall product quality produced from the fraction. Food product development can be successfully achieved by understanding the particular functional attributes of the constituents and their performance under different treatments such as temperature and pH .
3. Characterization of DF
4. Potential Sources of DF from Defatted Oilseeds
Defatted seed cakes are seed flours in which their fat content have been removed partially or fully, which subsequently improved the protein content of the resultant seed cake. The exploitation of by-products generated from food processing as a source of functional ingredients and their application in other foods is necessary as part of a waste management system . The by-product of oilseeds such as defatted cakes from kenaf, hemp and sesame seeds are some of the potential low-cost sources for DF extraction.
The entry is from 10.3390/foods10040754
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