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    D-ribose Supplementation in Caucasian Males

    Subjects: Nutrition
    View times: 362
    Submitted by: Christopher Collins

    Definition

    Mutations that occur within the AMPD1 gene are one of the most common defects detected in the Caucasian population with a likelihood of having the mutations as 1-2%. Several studies indicate that certain variants can cause fatigue, muscle weakness and muscular cramps, however some even with these variants remain asymptomatic. Some studies have shown that oral dosages of ribose can alleviate symptoms and can improve exercise performance in those with AMPD1 deficiency, ribose may provide a direct source of energy for cells. The aim of this preliminary study was to see if oral supplementary ribose can improve the performance of a 3 minute press-up test that is aimed to test muscle stamina and muscle fatigue in healthy Caucasian males against a control of healthy Caucasian males. The results show that having a T in rs17602729 may affect press-up performance in a 3 minute test and that supplemental ribose may improve performance, however the following results need to be correlated with current literature in the area and the conclusions are still debatable. 

    1. Introduction

    Adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 (AMPD1) plays a vital role in the purine nucleotide cycle, the gene encodes an enzyme of the same name. The enzyme coverts adenosine monophosphate to inosine monophosphate which frees an ammonia molecule during the process. Mutations that occur within the AMPD1 gene are one of the most common defects detected in the Caucasian population with a likelihood of having the mutations as 1-2%[1]. Several studies indicate that certain variants can cause fatigue, muscle weakness and muscular cramps [2] [3], however some even with these variants remain asymptomatic.

    The disorder caused by mutations is known as adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency type 1 (AMPD1 deficiency) or myoadenylate deaminase deficiency (MADD). The most common symptoms of AMPD1 deficiency are:

    1. Exercise intolerance – symptoms of fatigue and fast onset weakness on the commencement of exertion or prolonged exertion.
    2. Fatigue – general fatigue is poorly understood and may have multiple pathways, however a surplus of adenosine reduces alertness [4].
    3. Muscle cramping – this is may be due to an increased lactate [5].

    Those who have AMPD1 deficiency should maintain fitness levels for general health but also maintain the strength of muscles to keep proper function. Some studies have shown that oral dosages of ribose can alleviate symptoms and can improve exercise performance in those with AMPD1 deficiency, ribose may provide a direct source of energy for cells [6].

    *This is a preliminary search for correlations to allow for further study.

    2. Aim & Methods

    The aim of this preliminary study was to see if oral supplementary ribose can improve the performance of a 3 minute press-up test that is aimed to test muscle stamina and muscle fatigue in healthy Caucasian males (n= 55, 28-35y/o) against a control of healthy Caucasian males (n=14, 28-35y/o) whilst analysing the variants in rs17602729 (AMPD1). Two press-up tests done a week apart were conducted with participants taking 10g of oral ribose daily split into 2 5g doses, before the second press-up test 10g as the single dosage of that day was taken 30minutes prior to the test. The control group participants had no supplementary nutrition.

    The results show that 24 in the non-control group and 4 in the control group had CC (fwd/fwd) in rs17602729, 15 in the non-control group and 5 in the control group had CT (fwd/fwd) in rs17602729, 15 in the non-control group and 5 in the control group had TT (fwd/fwd) in rs17602729. The pre-test press-up and post-test press-up results are in the tables below:

    rs17602729 fwd/fwd D-Ribose group

    Press-up max in 3 minutes pre

    Press-up max in 3 minutes post 7 day rest + D-ribose

    CC

    72

    73

    CC

    91

    91

    CC

    88

    86

    CC

    75

    78

    CC

    79

    82

    CC

    101

    99

    CC

    88

    92

    CC

    110

    108

    CC

    92

    83

    CC

    94

    96

    CC

    96

    98

    CC

    88

    90

    CC

    73

    75

    CC

    80

    79

    CC

    91

    89

    CC

    87

    90

    CC

    94

    100

    CC

    99

    101

    CC

    101

    105

    CC

    110

    101

    CC

    62

    72

    CC

    73

    75

    CC

    90

    88

    CC

    91

    93

    CT

    100

    101

    CT

    98

    105

    CT

    88

    92

    CT

    85

    91

    CT

    93

    96

    CT

    95

    95

    CT

    92

    101

    CT

    100

    103

    CT

    75

    78

    CT

    62

    71

    CT

    90

    93

    CT

    82

    84

    CT

    68

    72

    CT

    72

    78

    CT

    69

    78

    TT

    89

    98

    TT

    71

    89

    TT

    65

    75

    TT

    58

    69

    TT

    71

    79

    TT

    69

    72

    TT

    70

    70

    TT

    81

    92

    TT

    83

    92

    TT

    71

    84

    TT

    74

    80

    TT

    72

    75

    TT

    79

    88

    TT

    68

    75

    TT

    63

    79

    Table 1. Non-control group results.

    rs17602729 fwd/fwd control

    Press-up max in 3 minutes pre

    Press-up max in 3 minutes post 7 day rest

    CC

    88

    89

    CC

    89

    88

    CC

    91

    90

    CC

    74

    74

    CT

    78

    77

    CT

    88

    86

    CT

    86

    89

    CT

    84

    85

    CT

    71

    73

    TT

    68

    70

    TT

    73

    70

    TT

    82

    81

    TT

    71

    70

    TT

    67

    66

    Table 2. Control group results.

    Average

    pre

    post

    rs17602729 CC

    88.5

    89.3

    rs17602729 CT

    84.6

    89.2

    rs17602729 TT

    72.2

    81.1

    rs17602729 CONTROL CC

    85.5

    85.25

    rs17602729 CONTROL CT

    81.4

    82

    rs17602729 CONTROL TT

    72.4

    71.4

    Table 3. Average results.

    From the results we can see that in all 3 outcome control groups there was no significant change in press-up results. Within the d-ribose group that had CC there was no significant difference is scores, within the CT group there was a difference of + 4 press-ups on average however the significance of this is debatable, for the TT group there was a difference of +9 reps which is a significant difference which is unlikely to come down to placebo affect alone.

    Graph 1. Average results. 

    The results show that having a T in rs17602729 may affect press-up performance in a 3 minute test and that supplemental ribose may improve performance, however the following results need to be correlated with current literature in the area, with further analysis including larger subject numbers. Whilst there is a significant difference between groups the exact cause is debatable with other factors requiring consideration.

    References

    1. Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency . Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2020-5-7
    2. Christopher Collins; Resistance Training, Recovery and Genetics: AMPD1 the Gene for Recovery. Journal of Athletic Enhancement 2017, 6, 1, 10.4172/2324-9080.1000256.
    3. Xinhui Li; Carsten Bantel; Dawn Conklin; Steven R. Childers; James C. Eisenach; Repeated dosing with oral allosteric modulator of adenosine A1 receptor produces tolerance in rats with neuropathic pain.. Anesthesiology 2004, 100, 956-961, 10.1097/00000542-200404000-00028.
    4. Hiroko Morisaki; Takayuki Morisaki; [AMPD genes and urate metabolism].. Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine 2008, 66, 771-7, .
    5. Ronnie Blazev; Graham D. Lamb; Adenosine inhibits depolarization-induced Ca(2+) release in mammalian skeletal muscle.. Muscle & Nerve 1999, 22, 1674-1683, 10.1002/(sici)1097-4598(199912)22:12<1674::aid-mus9>3.0.co;2-0.
    6. N Zöllner; S Reiter; M Gross; D Pongratz; C D Reimers; K Gerbitz; I Paetzke; T Deufel; G Hübner; Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency: successful symptomatic therapy by high dose oral administration of ribose.. Klinische Wochenschrift 1986, 64, 1281-91, .
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