Biofumigation for Fighting Replant Disease
Replant disease is a soil (micro-) biome-based, harmfully-disturbed physiological and morphological reaction of plants to replanting similar cultures on the same sites by demonstrating growth retardation and leading to economic losses especially in Rosaceae plant production. Commonly, replant disease is overcome by soil fumigation with toxic chemicals. With chemical soil fumigation being restricted in many countries, other strategies are needed. Biofumigation, which is characterized by the incorporation of Brassicaceae plant materials into soil, is a promising method.
1. The Replant Disease Syndrome
3. Effects of Biofumigation on the Soil Biota
4. Efficacy of Biofumigation on Replant Disease
|Kind of Replant Disease||Biofumigation Treatment||Environmental Conditions||Measurement of Efficacy by||Efficacy||Observations||Ref.|
|Apple replant disease||Brassica napus as cover crop||No information provided||Field trials, counts of Pratylenchus penetrans and recovery of Pythium from soil||No positive effects||No reduction, but rather an increase in Pratylenchus penetrans and Pythium abundance|||
|Apple replant disease||B. napus seed meal 0.1–2.0%||Incubation in the greenhouse (20 °C), no information on soil moisture etc.||Greenhouse pot trials||Increased plant growth, but toxic effects at high concentration.||No consistent reduction in Pythium infections, suppression of Rhizoctonia and Pratylenchus penetrans at 0.1% and increased abundance of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. at 0.1 and 1.0%|||
|Apple replant disease||B. napus seed meal 8.5 t ha−1 and green manure (for one-three years)||Seed meal incorporation in May 2001, some variants covered by plastic foil (no information on soil temperature/moisture)||Field trial with tree growth and yield measurements||Growth and yield improvement by both, B. napus green manure and seed meal treatments, especially when combined with fungicide treatment.||Reduction of ARD associated pathogens, i.e., Pratylenchus penetrans, Pythium, Cylindrocarpon, Rhizoctonia, but not Fusarium by the combined treatment of B. napus seed meal and fungicide, not by green manure.|||
|Apple replant disease||Brassica juncea plant material (1–3 years) and B. napus seed meal combined with other treatments||No information provided||Field test and greenhouse bio-test of plant growth and yield (field)||Cumulative yield increase in a site-dependent way, mainly by seed meal treatments||Control of Cylindrocarpon, Rhizoctonia and Pythium ultimum by seed meal treatments, best in combination with a fungicide treatment, lower effect on Pratylenchus penetrans|||
|Straw-berry replant disease||B. juncea cover crop incorporated into the soil||Incorporation of plant residues in April 2002, no further information on soil temperature or moisture||Pot trial and field experiment||Fruit yield as well as vegetative growth parameters increased in the pot and the field trial||Rhizoctonia abundance was reduced by mustard treatment, but causes for this kind of replant disease is not clear.|||
|Apple replant disease||Seed meals of B. juncea, Sinapis alba and B. napus; 0.5% (wt/wt)||Eight weeks of incubation at 22 ± 3 °C, no information on soil moisture||Greenhouse bio-test in pots||Seed meal improved apple seedling growth, seed meal reduced Rhizoctonia solani infection in native but not in pasteurized soil, while Streptomyces ssp. increased it||B. juncea seed meal was most effective in Pratylenchus penetrans suppression and the only seed meal that did not increase Pythium populations|||
|Apple replant disease||Seed meals of B. juncea, S. alba and B. napus; 0.5% (vol/vol)||Blending and sieving (< 1 mm) of seed meals, 8 weeks of incubation at 22 ± 3 °C, no information on soil moisture||Greenhouse bio-test in pots||Seed meal-specific effects on Pythium and Pratylenchus penetrans numbers and infections.||B. juncea seed meal suppressed Pythium and P. penetrans populations.|||
|Apple replant disease||Seed meal of B. juncea; 0.3% (wt/wt) = 4.5 t ha−1||Fine (<1 mm) and coarse (2–4 mm) seed meal particles incorporated, no further information on soil temperature or moisture||Bio-test in greenhouse, variation of particle sizes of seed meal||Suppression of Rhizoctonia solani SG5 (for fine seed meal), Pratylenchus penetrans and Pythium spp. infections||Biological and chemical effects of the seed meal, increased population densities of Streptomyces and more free-living nematodes|||
|Apple replant disease||Seed meals of B. juncea, S. alba and B. napus; 4.5 kg m−1 tree row||Incorporation in April 2005, May 2006, April 2007, respectively, tarped with plastic foil for 1 week, no further information on soil temperature or moisture||Field trial with measures of tree diameter and cumulative yield||Significant improvement of tree growth and cumulative fruit yield when seed meals (except for B. napus) were combined with fungicide soil drench||Seed meal specific effects, B. napus resulted in increased Pythium and Pratylenchus penetrans densities, whereas B. juncea reduced both pathogens as well as Cylindrocarpon infections but only when combined with fungicide drench. Without fungicide treatment, B. napus and S. alba seed meal amendments caused Pythium and B. juncea caused Phytophtora infections.|||
|Apple replant disease||Seed meals of B. juncea, S. alba and B. napus; 0.3% (wt/wt)||Blending and sieving (<1 mm) of seed meals, 48 h incubation in plastic bags, no information on soil temperature or moisture||Bio-test in greenhouse||Reduction of apple seedling mortality after B. juncea seed meal application in one soil.||Soil-dependent and seed meal-dependent shifts in Pythium communities, S. alba led to increased P. ultimum levels.|||
|Apple replant disease||Seed meal of B. juncea; 0.3% (wt/wt) = 4.5 t ha−1||Fine (<1 mm) and coarse (2–4 mm) seed meal particles incorporated, bagged or non-bagged incubation for 48 h, no further information on soil temperature or moisture||Bio-test in greenhouse||Reduction of Pythium abappressorium infections, especially in the bagged variants||Suppressiveness of soil was achieved, possibly due to long-term changes in fungal communities, especially promotion of Trichoderma spp.|||
|Apple replant disease||Seed meal blends of B. juncea, S. alba and B. napus; 6.7 t ha−1||Incorporation of seed meals once in March 2010 or twice in September 2009 and April 2010, tarped for 1 week, no further information on soil temperature or moisture||Field test of plant growth and yield||Significant increase in tree growth of B. juncea + S. alba, positive long-term effect (4 years), but mortality if applied few weeks prior to planting. Efficacy superior to chemical fumigation||Effective reduction of Pratylenchus penetrans mainly in the first year, Pythium infections enduringly reduced. Resilient changes in rhizosphere microbial communities.|||
|Peach replant disease||B. juncea plant biomass and canola seed meal cake in a field experiment||Watering before incorporation in June 20, 1 day later tarping, recording of soil temperature during the 2-months treatment (26–34 °C)||Field test of plant growth||Significantly improved tree growth||Better plant health, lower mortality|||
|Apple replant disease||Incorporation of plant material of B. juncea and Raphanus sativus in the field||Incorporation in May and August 2012 and 2013, no further information on soil temperature or moisture||Greenhouse bio-test of plant growth and field test||Site specific increase in biomass production after biofumigation.||Nutrient effect and stronger shifts in fungal than in bacterial community composition|||
|Apple replant disease||Incorporation of plant material of B. juncea and R. sativus in the field||Incorporation in May and August 2012 and 2013, no further information on soil temperature or moisture||Field test of plant growth||Site specific effects (only in the tested sandy soil about 150% increase in growth, no significant change in the second soil).||Bacterial genera with increased abundance: Arthrobacter (R. sativus), Ferruginibacter (B. juncea, R. sativus). Fungal genera of higher abundance: Podospora, Monographella and Mucor (B. juncea, R. sativus)|||
|Apple replant disease||Incorporation of seed meal formulation of B. juncea and S. alba 1:1 in the field, 2.2, 4.4, 6.6 t ha−1||Incorporation in April 2016, tarping for 2 weeks, soil temperature: 12−14 °C, no information on soil moisture||Field test of plant growth||Significantly improved tree growth, 4.4 t ha−1 was optimal||Soil fumigation and seed meal amendments suppressed Pythium infection in rootstook-specific way. Long-term effect on soil microbial communities. Beneficial microbes increased due to biofumigation|||
|Apple replant disease||Incorporation of seed meal formulation of B. juncea and S. alba 1:1, dosage, 2.2, 4.4, 6.6 t ha−1||Incorporation into moist soil (−63 to −92 hPa), incubation in bags for 48 h under greenhouse conditions||Greenhouse bio-test in pots||Significantly improved tree growth at all dosages; no difference between 4.4 and 6.6 t ha−1, high efficacy in P. penetrans and Pythium ssp. control||Geneva rootstocks had less colonization by Pythium ssp. or P. penetrans compared to Mailling rootstocks; both rootstock genotype and soil treatment affected soil microbiom|||
The entry is from 10.3390/agronomy10030425
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