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Electrochemical Sensors for Bromate Determination
Potassium bromate (KBrO3), a renowned oxidizing agent, has a huge reputation for being one of the best and least expensive dough-improving substances in the baking industry. As such, its importance in the baking industry cannot be overemphasized. KBrO3 produced the desired result in baking by influencing the physical and chemical properties of macromolecules such as protein and starch often found in the dough. Precisely, the viscosity, extent of gelatinization, swelling characteristics of the dough, and disulfide linkage formation (in gluten proteins) are affected by the use of KBrO3 as an additive in bread baking. Bromate has been found to be a product of water treatment due to bromide ion oxidation that occurs during ozonation.
The application of potassium bromate in the baking industry is used in most parts of the world to avert the human health compromise that characterizes bromates carcinogenic effect. Herein, various methods of its analysis, especially the electrochemical methods of bromate detection, were extensively discussed. Amperometry (AP), cyclic voltammetry (CV), square wave voltammetry (SWV), electrochemiluminescence (ECL), differential pulse voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are the techniques that have been deployed for bromate detection in the last two decades, with 50%, 23%, 7.7%, 7.7%, 7.7% and 3.9% application, respectively. Despite the unique electrocatalytic activity of metal phthalocyanine (MP) and carbon quantum dots (CQDs), only few sensors based on MP and CQDs are available compared to the conducting polymers, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), metal (oxide), and graphene-based sensors. This review emboldens the underutilization of CQDs and metal phthalocyanines as sensing materials and briefly discusses the future perspective on MP and CQDs application in bromate detection via EIS.
Ability to determine BrO3− down to a limit of detection that is 25% of the MAL
Short analysis time and cost
No sample pre-treatment
This entry is adapted from 10.3390/bios11060172
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