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Probiotics in Fish Nutrition
Probiotics are live microbial additives that have a beneficial effect on the host by (1) modifying the host-associated microbial community, (2) ensuring improved use of the feed or enhancing its nutritional value, (3) enhancing the host response towards disease, and/or (4) improving the quality of its ambient environment.
Over the last decades, aquaculture production increased rapidly. The future development of the industry highly relies on the sustainable utilization of natural resources. The need for improving disease resistance, growth performance, food conversion, and product safety for human consumption has stimulated the application of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics increase growth and feed conversion, improve health status, raise disease resistance, decrease stress susceptibility, and improve general vigor. Currently, most probiotics still originate from terrestrial sources rather than fish. However, host-associated (autochthonous) probiotics are likely more persistent in the gastrointestinal tract of fish and may, therefore, exhibit longer-lasting effects on the host. Probiotic candidates are commonly screened in in vitro assays, but the transfer to in vivo assessment is often problematic. In conclusion, modulation of the host-associated microbiome by the use of complex probiotics is promising, but a solid understanding of the interactions involved is only in its infancy and requires further research. Probiotics could be used to explore novel ingredients such as chitin-rich insect meal, which cannot be digested by the fish host alone. Most importantly, probiotics offer the opportunity to improve stress and disease resistance, which is among the most pressing problems in aquaculture.
The entry is from 10.3390/w13101348
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