COVID-19 on Swimming Training
The COVID-19 pandemic has had severe effects on communities globally, leading to significant restrictions on all aspects of society, including in sports. Several significant decisions were made to postpone or cancel major swimming events by FINA (Fédération Internationale de Natation). Swimmers were no longer allowed to continue their usual training in swimming pools and were confined to their homes. These unusual circumstances may represent a good opportunity to strengthen different areas of swimmer preparation and potentially enhance performance when resuming regular aquatic training.
2. COVID-19 and Water Environment
3. Impact of COVID-19 on Major Swimming Events
4. The Effect of Swim Training Cessation
5. Impact of Different Training Strategies during Confinement
5.1. Tethered Swimming
5.2. Swimming Flume
5.3. Swim Bench Training
5.4. Rowing Ergometer
5.5. Running and Cycling
5.6. Dry-Land Strength Training
5.7. Circuit Training
5.9. Core Training
5.10. Eccentric Training
5.11. Instability Training
The entry is from 10.3390/ijerph18094767
- Lai, C.C.; Shih, T.P.; Ko, W.C.; Tang, H.J.; Hsueh, P.R. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 2020, 55, 105924.
- Cities Policy Responses. 2020. Available online: (accessed on 19 April 2021).
- Aspenes, S.T.; Karlsen, T. Exercise-training intervention studies in competitive swimming. Sports Med. 2012, 42, 527–543.
- Lomax, M.E.; McConnell, A.K. Inspiratory muscle fatigue in swimmers after a single 200 m swim. J. Sports Sci. 2003, 21, 659–664.
- Armour, J.; Donnelly, P.M.; Bye, P.T. The large lungs of elite swimmers: An increased alveolar number? Eur. Respir. J. 1993, 6, 237–247.
- Pendergast, D.R.; Lundgren, C.E.G. The underwater environment: Cardiopulmonary, thermal, and energetic demands. J. Appl. Physiol. (1985) 2009, 106, 276–283.
- Zamparo, P.; Cortesi, M.; Gatta, G. The energy cost of swimming and its determinants. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2020, 120, 41–66.
- Lavoie, J.M.; Montpetit, R.R. Applied physiology of swimming. Sports Med. 1986, 3, 165–189.
- Crowley, E.; Harrison, A.J.; Lyons, M. The impact of resistance training on swimming performance: A systematic review. J. Sports Med. 2017, 47, 2285–2307.
- COVID-19 and Water. 2020. Available online: (accessed on 2 April 2021).
- Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Waste Management for the COVID-19 Virus. 2020. Available online: (accessed on 19 March 2020).
- FINA Recommendations Control and Prevention. 2021. Available online: (accessed on 29 March 2020).
- Bok, D.; Chamari, K.; Foster, C. The pitch invader—COVID-19 canceled the game: What can science do for u, and what can the pandemic do for science? Int. J. Sports Physiol. Perform. 2020, 1–3, Epub ahead of print.
- Statement on Overseas Spectators for the Olympic and Paralympic Games Tokyo 2020. 2021. Available online: (accessed on 20 March 2021).
- Mujika, I.; Padilla, S. Cardiorespiratory and metabolic characteristics of detraining in humans. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2001, 33, 413–421.
- Ormsbee, M.J.; Arciero, P.J. Detraining increases body fat and weight and decreases V[combining dot above]O2peak and Metabolic Rate. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2012, 26, 2087–2095.
- Costill, D.L. Practical problems in exercise physiology research. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport 1985, 56, 378–384.
- Zacca, R.; Toubekis, A.; Freitas, L.; Silva, A.F.; Azevedo, R.; Vilas-Boas, J.P.; Pyne, D.B.; Castro, F.A.D.S.; Fernandes, R.J. Effects of detraining in age-group swimmers performance, energetics and kinematics. J. Sports Sci. 2019, 37, 1490–1498.
- Moreira, M.F.; Morais, J.E.; Marinho, D.A.; Silva, A.J.; Barbosa, T.M.; Costa, M.J. Growth influences biomechanical profile of talented swimmers during the summer break. Sports Biomech. 2014, 13, 62–74.
- Papoti, M.; da Silva, A.S.R.; Kalva-Filho, C.A.; Araujo, G.G.; Santiago, V.; Martins, L.B.; Gobatto, C.A.; Cunha, S.A. Tethered swimming for the evaluation and prescription of resistance training in young swimmers. Int. J. Sports Med. 2017, 38, 125–133.
- Psycharakis, S.G.; Sanders, R.H. Validity of the use of a fixed point for intracycle velocity calculations in swimming. J. Sci. Med. Sport 2009, 12, 262–265.
- Morouço, P.G.; Marinho, D.A.; Keskinen, K.L.; Badillo, J.J.; Marques, M.C. Tethered Swimming can be used to evaluate force contribution for short-distance swimming performance. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2014, 28, 3093–3099.
- Kalva-Filho, C.; Araújo, M.Y.C.; Silva, A.; Gobatto, C.; Zagatto, A.M.; Gobbi, R.B.; Papoti, M. Determination of VO2-intensity relationship and MAOD in tethered swimming. Int. J. Sports Med. 2016, 37, 687–693.
- Girold, S.; Calmels, P.; Maurin, D.; Milhau, N.; Chatard, J.-C. Assisted and resisted sprint training in swimming. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2006, 20, 547–554.
- Holmér, I.; Astrand, P.O. Swimming training and maximal oxygen uptake. J. Appl. Physiol. 1972, 33, 510–513.
- Hay, J.G.; do Carmo, J. Swimming techniques used in the flume differ from those used in a pool. In Book of Abstracts; The XVth Congress of the ISB, Hakkinen, K., Keskinen, K.L., Komi, P.V., Mero, A., Eds.; Gummerus Printing Ltd.: Jyväskylä, Finland, 1995; pp. 372–373. ISBN 951-34-0563-X.
- Li, X.; Yang, H.; Yu, W.; Xu, X.; Chan, S. Comparasion of Some Biomechanics Parameters of Breaststroke Swimmers in Flume and Swimming Pool; SAP-19, 10:45–11:15; XXIV ISBS Symposıum: Salzburg, Austria, 2006.
- Ruiz-Navarro, J.J.; Morouço, P.G.; Arellano, R. Relationship between tethered swimming in a flume and swimming performance. Int. J. Sports Physiol. Perform. 2020, 1–8.
- Sharp, R.L.; Troup, J.P.; Costill, D.L. Relationship between power and sprint freestyle swimming. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1982, 14, 53–56.
- Sadowski, J.; Mastalerz, A.; Gromisz, W.; Niynikowski, T. Effectiveness of the power dry-land training programmes in youth swimmers. J. Hum. Kinet. 2012, 32, 77–86.
- Shimonagata, S.; Taguchi, M.; Miura, M. Effect of swimming power, swimming power endurance and dry-land power on 100m freestyle performance. In Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming IX; Chatard, J.C., Ed.; University of Saint-Etienne: Saint-Etienne, France, 2003; pp. 391–396.
- Aspenes, S.; Kjendlie, P.-L.; Hoff, J.; Helgerud, J. Combined strength and endurance training in competitive swimmers. J. sports Sci. Med. 2009, 8, 357–365.
- Potts, A.D.; Charlton, J.E.; Smith, H.M. Bilateral arm power imbalance in swim bench exercise to exhaustion. J. Sports Sci. 2002, 20, 975–979.
- Hong, W.H.; Wang, H.J.; Chen, K.R.; Huang, M.H. The prediction of fatigue related muscle adaptation in different workoad during cycling rowing exercise. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports, Taipei, Taiwan, 7–11 July 2013.
- Weston, M.; Hibbs, A.; Thompson, K. Solated core training improves sprint performance in national-level junior swimmers. Int. J. Sports Physiol. Perform. 2015, 10, 204–210.
- Wilson, F.; Gissane, C.; Gormley, J.; Simms, C. A 12-month prospective cohort study of injury in international rowers. Br. J. Sports Med. 2010, 44, 207–214, Epub 21 August 2008.
- Mujika, I.; Padilla, S. Detraining: Loss of training-induced physiological and performance adaptations. Part 2: Long term insufficient training stimulus. Sports Med. 2000, 30, 145–154.
- Hollander, A.P.; De Groot, G.; Van Ingen Schenau, G.J.; Kahman, R.; Toussaint, H.M. Contribution of the legs to propulsion in front crawl swimming. In Human Kinetics Books; Ungerechts, V.B., Wilke, K., Reischle, K., Eds.; Swimming Science: Champaign, IL, USA, 1988; pp. 39–43.
- Ribeiro, J.; Figueiredo, P.; Sousa, A.; Monteiro, J.; Pelarigo, J.; Vilas-Boas, J.P.; Toussaint, H.M.; Fernandes, R.F. O2 kinetics and metabolic contributions during full and upper body extreme swimming intensity. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2015, 115, 1117–1124.
- Currie, K.D.; Coates, A.M.; Slysz, J.T.; Aubry, R.L.; Whinton, A.K.; Mountjoy, M.L.; Millar, P.J.; Burr, J.F. Left ventricular structure and function in elite swimmers and runners. Front. Physiol. 2018, 9, 1700.
- Dintiman, G.; Ward, B. Sport Speed, 3rd ed.; Human Kinetics: Windsor, ON, Canada, 2003; pp. 34–108.
- Manning, J.; Dooly-Manning, C.; Terrell, D. Effects of a power circuit weight training program on power production and performance. J. Swim Res. 1986, 2, 24–29.
- Hawley, J.A.; Williams, M.M. Relationship between upper body anaerobic power and freestyle swimming performance. Int. J. Sports Med. 1991, 12, 1–5.
- Girold, S.; Maurin, D.; Dugue’, B.; Chatard, J.-C.; Millet, G. Effects of dry-land vs. resisted and assisted sprint exercises on swimming sprint performances. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2007, 21, 599–605.
- West, D.J.; Owen, N.J.; Cunningham, D.J.; Cook, C.J.; Kilduff, L.P. Strength and power predictors of swimming starts in international sprint swimmers. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2011, 25, 950–955.
- Beretić, I.; Đurović, M.; Okičić, T.; Dopsaj, M. Relations between lower body isometric muscle force characteristics and start performance in elite male sprint swimmers. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2013, 12, 639.
- García-Ramos, A.; Tomazin, K.; Feriche, B.; Strojnik, V.; De la Fuente, B.; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, J. The relationship between the lower-body muscular profle and swimming start performance. J. Hum. Kinet. 2016, 50, 157–165.
- Cronin, J.; Jones, J.; Frost, D. The relationship between dry-land power measures and tumble turn velocity in elite swimmers. J. Swim Res. 2007, 17, 17–23.
- Ballor, D.; Becque, M.D.; Katch, V.L. Metabolic responses during hydraulic resistance exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1987, 19, 363–367.
- Riewald, S. Strength and Conditioning for Performance Enhancement; Human Kinetics: Champaign, IL, USA, 2015.
- Schmidt, D.; Anderson, K.; Graff, M.; Strutz, V. The effect of high-intensity circuit training on physical fitness. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fit. 2016, 56, 534–540.
- Paoli, A.; Pacelli, F.; Bargossi, A.M.; Marcolin, G.; Guzzinati, S.; Neri, M.; Bianco, A.; Palma, A. Effects of three distinct protocols of fitness training on body composition, strength and blood lactate. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fit. 2010, 50, 43–51.
- Mujika, I.; Crowley, E. Strength Training for Swimmers. In Concurrent Aerobic and Strength Training; Schumann, M., Rønnestad, B., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, Switzerland, 2019; pp. 369–386.
- Hewett, T.E.; Stroupe, A.L.; Nance, T.A.; Noyes, F.R. Plyometric training in female athletes. decreased impact forces and increased hamstring torques. Am. J. Sports Med. 1996, 24, 765–773.
- De Villarreal, E.S.S.; Requena, B.; Newton, R.U. Does plyometric training improve strength performance? A meta-analysis. J. Sci. Med. Sport 2010, 13, 513–522.
- Campo, S.S.; Vaeyens, R.; Philippaerts, R.M.; Redondo, J.C.; de Benito, A.M.; Cuadrado, G. Effects of lower-limb plyometric training on body composition, explosive strength, and kicking speed in female soccer players. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2009, 23, 1714–1722.
- Potdevin, F.J.; Alberty, M.E.; Chevutschi, A.; Pelayo, P.; Sidney, M.C. Effects of a 6-Week plyometric training program on performances in pubescent swimmers. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2011, 25, 80–86.
- Rebutini, V.; Pereira, G.; Bohrer, R.; Ugrinowitsch, C.; Rodacki, A. Plyometric long jump training with progressive loading improves kinetic and kinematic swimming start parameters. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2016, 30, 2392–2398.
- Bishop, D.; Smith, R.; Smith, M.; Rigby, H. Effect of plyometric training on swimming block start performance in adolescents. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2009, 23, 2137–2143.
- Trappe, S.; Pearson, D. Effects of weight assisted dry-land strength training on swimming performance. J. Strength Cond. Res. 1994, 8, 209–213.
- Karpiński, J.; Rejdych, W.; Brzozowska, D.; Gołaś, A.; Sadowski, W.; Swinarew, A.S.; Stachura, A.; Gupta, S.; Stanula, A. The effects of a 6-week core exercises on swimming performance of national level swimmers. PLoS ONE 2020, 15, e0227394.
- Chiu, L.; Salem, G. Comparison of joint kinetics during free weight and fywheel resistance exercise. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2006, 20, 555–562.
- Cuenca-Fernández, F.; López-Contreras, G.; Arellano, R. Effect on swimming start performance of two types of activation protocols: Lunge and YoYo squat. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2015, 29, 647–655.
- Serra, N.; Carvalho, D.D.; Fernandes, R.J. The importance of agonistic, antagonist, and synergistic muscles coordination on swimming dry land training. Trends Sport Sci. 2017, 3, 101–104.
- Pelot, T.; Darmiento, A. Strength and power training for the elite swimmer: Can weights positively impact elite swim performance when “elite performance” requires 15–25 hours/week of practice? Olymp. Coach 2012, 23, 22–31.
- Please check and comment entries here.