Electro Fluid Dynamics: a set of processing techniques for manipulating biomaterials

Created by: Vincenzo Guarino
Revised by: Chaya Zeng

Electro Fluid Dynamics (EFDs) are emerging as a set of highly flexible and low-cost processes to manipulate biomaterials at micro and sub-micro scale by utilizing electrostatic forces generated via high voltage electric fileds .

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Today, a large variety of processes and tools is deeply investigated to discover new solutions for the design instructive materials with controlled chemical, physical, and biological properties for tissue engineering and drug delivery[1]. In this context, EFDs is emerging forcefully, due to the enormous potential of electrostatic forces to interact with polymer solutions, thus realizing 3D architectures able to guide cell activities towards the regeneration of natural tissues [2][3]. By a rational selection of polymer solution properties and process conditions, EFDs allow producing fibres and/or particles at micro and/or nanometric size scale[4] which may be variously assembled by tailored experimental setups, thus giving the opportunity to generate a plethora of different 3D devices able to incorporate bio-active polymers (i.e, proteins, polysaccharides)[5][6] or molecules (e.g., drugs,  growth factors)[7][8] for different applications (i.e, tissue enginering, drug delivery, nanomedicine). To date, basic EDTs processing modes, i.e., including electrospinning [9], electrospraying[10][11] and electrodynamic atomization[12][13]-  have been succesfully used to develop active/instructive platforms - such as mono- bi- component fibre/particle scaffolds, drug or molecular loaded capsules or particles,  µ-scaffolds and microgels, - or micro- / nano- structured coatings,  made of synthetic (i.e, PCL, PLGA, PLA, PS, PU) or natural (i.e, Collagen, gelatin, keratin, chitosan, alginate, cellullose detrivates, haluronan) polymers. 




  1. Guarino et al; Polymer Based platforms by electric field assisted techniques for tissue engineering and cancer therapy. Exp Rev Med Dev 2015, 12(1), 113-129, 10.1586/17434440.2014.953058.
  2. Guarino V*, Ambrosio; Electrofluidodynamics: exploring new toolbox to design biomaterials for tissue regeneration and degeneration. Nanomedicine 2016, 11(12), 1515, 10.2217/nnm-2016-0108.
  3. Guarino V., Gloria A., Raucci MG., De Santis R., Ambrosio L.; Bio-inspired cell instructive composite platforms for bone regeneration.. International Materals reviews 2012, 57(5), 256-275, 10.1179/1743280411Y.
  4. Guarino V*, Cirillo V, Taddei P, Alvarez-Perez MA, Ambrosio L.; Tuning size scale and cristalliniy of PCL electrospun membranes via solvent permittivity to adress hMSC response.. Macromolecular Bioscience 2011, 11, 1694-1705, 10.1002/mabi.201100204.
  5. Guarino V.*, Alvarez-Perez M.A., Cirillo V., Ambrosio; hMSC interaction with pcl and pcl/gelatin platforms: a comparative study on films and electrospun membranes. Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers 2011, 26, 144-160, 10.1177/0883911511399410.
  6. MA Alvarez-Perez, V.Guarino*, V.Cirillo, L.Ambrosio; Influence of gelatin cues in PCL electrospun membranes on nerve outgrowth. Biomacromolecules 2010, 11(9), 2238-46, 10.1021/bm100221h.
  7. WK Wan Abdul Khodir, V Guarino*, MA Alvarez-Perez, C Cafiero and L. Ambrosio.; Trapping of Tetracycline Loaded Nanoparticles into PCL fibre networks in periodontal regeneration therapy. J Bioactive Compatible Polymers 2013, 28(3), 258 –273, 10.1177/0883911513481133.
  8. LR Pires, V Guarino, MJ Oliveira, CC Ribeiro, MA Barbosa, L Ambrosio, A P Pêgo; Loading poly(trimethylene carbonate – co – ε-caprolactone) fibers with ibuprofen towards nerve regeneration. J Tissue Eng and Reg Med 2016. 2016, 10(3), 154-166, 10.1002/term.1792.
  9. Guaccio A, Guarino V.*, Alvarez-Perez M.A., Cirillo V., Netti PA, Ambrosio L.; Influence of electrospun fibre mesh size on hMSC oxygen metabolism in 3D collagen matrices: Experimental and theoretical evidences. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 2011, 108(8), 1965-76, 10.1002/bit.23113.
  10. V Guarino*, WK Wan Abdul Khodir, L Ambrosio; Biodegradable micro and nanoparticles by electrospraying techniques. J Appl Biomat and Funct Mat 2012, 10(3), 191-96, 10.5301/JABFM.2012.10369.
  11. V Guarino*, R Altobelli, V Cirillo, A Cummaro, L Ambrosio; Additive electrospraying: a new route to process electrospun scaffolds for controlled molecular release. Polym. Adv. Technol 2015, 26, 1359–1369, 10.1002/pat.3588.
  12. V Guarino*, R Altobelli, L Ambrosio; Chitosan Microgels And Nanoparticles Via Electrofluidodynamic Techniques For Biomedical Applications. Gels 2016, 2(1), 2, 10.3390/gels2010002.
  13. Rosaria Altobelli, Vincenzo Guarino*, Luigi Ambrosio; Electrofluidodynamics: Micro and nanocarriers for cell and molecular therapies. Process Biochemistry 2016, 51, 2143–2154, 10.1016/j.procbio.2016.09.002.