Electro Fluid Dynamics: a set of processing techniques for manipulating biomaterials
Electro Fluid Dynamics (EFDs) are emerging as a set of highly flexible and low-cost processes to manipulate biomaterials at micro and sub-micro scale by utilizing electrostatic forces generated via high voltage electric fileds .
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Today, a large variety of processes and tools is deeply investigated to discover new solutions for the design instructive materials with controlled chemical, physical, and biological properties for tissue engineering and drug delivery. In this context, EFDs is emerging forcefully, due to the enormous potential of electrostatic forces to interact with polymer solutions, thus realizing 3D architectures able to guide cell activities towards the regeneration of natural tissues . By a rational selection of polymer solution properties and process conditions, EFDs allow producing fibres and/or particles at micro and/or nanometric size scale which may be variously assembled by tailored experimental setups, thus giving the opportunity to generate a plethora of different 3D devices able to incorporate bio-active polymers (i.e, proteins, polysaccharides) or molecules (e.g., drugs, growth factors) for different applications (i.e, tissue enginering, drug delivery, nanomedicine). To date, basic EDTs processing modes, i.e., including electrospinning , electrospraying and electrodynamic atomization- have been succesfully used to develop active/instructive platforms - such as mono- bi- component fibre/particle scaffolds, drug or molecular loaded capsules or particles, µ-scaffolds and microgels, - or micro- / nano- structured coatings, made of synthetic (i.e, PCL, PLGA, PLA, PS, PU) or natural (i.e, Collagen, gelatin, keratin, chitosan, alginate, cellullose detrivates, haluronan) polymers.
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